地理标志大家谈|专访欧洲联盟驻华代表团农业与卫生处参赞彭达明

了解欧盟地理标志产业的整体概况,地理标志的认定标准,互认协议签订后的落地实施办法以及如何共...
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  为了更好地了解欧盟地理标志产业的整体概况、地理标志的认定标准、互认协议签订后的落地实施办法以及如何共同促进地理标志领域经贸合作发展。圆点直播对欧洲联盟驻华代表团农业与卫生处参赞彭达明进行了专访。

      To understand the overview of the geographical indications industry in the EU, the criteria for the recognition of geographical indications, the implementation of the mutual recognition agreement and how to jointly promote the economic and trade cooperation in the field of geographical indications. Dot Live Broadcast interview with Damien Plan, Agriculture Counsellor of the EU Delegation to China.

  一、关于中欧地理标志产品

  I.China-Europe geographical indication products

  圆点直播:首先能给我们介绍下什么是地理标志?

      Dot Live Broadcast:First of all, can you introduce what is geographical indications?

  彭达明:WTO(世界贸易组织)的知识产权协议(TRIPS)对地理标志作出了官方的国际性定义(地理标志是指原产于某一地域或该地域的某一区域的产品,原产地区域专属特性赋予该产品特定质量、声誉或其他特征)。

      Damien Plan:The WTO (World Trade Organization) agreement on Intellectual Property (TRIPS) provides an official and international definition of Geographical indications GIs (Geographical indications are indications which identify a good as originating in a territory, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristics of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin).

  简而言之,地理标志产品指产品名称和质量与其原产地紧密相连的产品。

      Shortly and simply, a geographical indication (GI) refers to the name of a product which quality is linked to its geographical origin.

  在实践中,地理标志的政策和监管旨在保护特定产品名称,促进产品与地理来源相关的独特特征以及传统工艺。

  In practice, GI policy and regulations aim at protecting the names of specific products to promote their unique characteristics linked to their geographical origin, as well as traditional know-how.

  地理标志为特定产品建立了知识产权保护,这些产品的质量与原产地域密切相关。地理标志系统使消费者能够信任和识别特定的优质产品,同时也帮助生产商更好地推广优质产品。

      Geographical indications establish intellectual property rights for specific products, whose qualities are specifically linked to the area of production. The GI system enables consumers to trust and identify specific quality products, while also helping producers to market better their high quality products.

  圆点直播:目前中欧互认地理标志产品中,欧洲的地理标志产品都有哪些种类?这些欧洲的地理标志产品是如何遴选的?

  Dot Live Broadcast:What are the types of European GI products in the current EU-CN GI agreement? How are these European GI products selected?

  彭达明中欧地理标志协定于2021年3月1日生效,保护约200个欧洲和中国的地理标志性农产品使其名称免遭仿冒和篡改,实现了贸易互利,同时为消费者带来中欧两地具有丰富美食和文化传统的正宗产品。

      Damien Plan:The EU-China bilateral agreement on geographical indications, which entered into force on 1 March 2021, protects around 200 iconic European and Chinese agri-food names against imitation and usurpation, bringing mutual trade benefits and introducing consumers to guaranteed, authentic products from two regions with a rich culinary and cultural tradition.

  更准确地说,自 2021 年 3 月 1 日起,100 个中国地理标志名称已在欧盟受到保护,96 个欧盟地理标志名称已在中国受到保护(96个欧盟地理标志名称,而不是100个,因为4个名称是英国地理标志名称,已经不再是欧盟地理标志)。

  More precisely since 1 March 2021, 100 Chinese GI names are protected in the EU and 96 EU GI names are protected in China (96 EU names, rather than 100, because 4 names were UK GIs, which are not anymore EU GIs).

  在2025年3月之前,第二批欧盟和中国地理标志将列入保护名单,其中欧盟和中国将各有175个地理标志受到保护。

  A second batch of 175 EU GIs and 175 Chinese GIs will be protected by March 2025.

  欧盟自 2021 年 3 月 1 日起在中国保护的 96 种地理标志产品清单包括一些具有标志性的地理标志产品,例如卡瓦酒、香槟、干邑白兰地、菲达奶酪、爱尔兰威士忌、慕尼黑啤酒、乌佐茴香酒、波兰伏特加、波特酒、帕尔玛火腿和蒙切哥奶酪。

  The EU list of 96 GIs protected in China since 1 March 2021 includes iconic GI products such as Cava, Champagne, Cognac, Feta, Irish whiskey, Münchener Bier, Ouzo, Polska Wódka, Porto, Prosciutto di Parma and Queso Manchego.

  这些产品是在与欧盟成员国协商后选定的。事实上,在中国保护的 96 个欧盟地理标志的名单仅占欧盟地理标志名称保护总数的一小部分(超过 3,300 个地理标志在欧盟注册)。

  These products have been selected after consultation with the EU Member States. Indeed this initial list of 96 EU GIs protected in China represents only a small fraction of the total number of GI names protected in the EU (over 3,300 geographical indications are registered in the European Union).

  圆点直播:您觉得欧盟比较有代表性的地理标志产品有哪些?

  Dot Live Broadcast:What do you think are the more representative GI products in the EU?

  彭达明:葡萄酒类的地标产品在3300多个欧盟注册的地理标志产品里占比超过50%。

  Damien Plan:Wine GIs represent 50% of more than 3,300 geographical indications currently registered in the European Union.

  因此,可以说葡萄酒类是欧盟地理标志产品中最具代表性的。葡萄酒的质量也与其地理来源直接相关,例如来自法国的香槟、来自西班牙的里奥哈或来自意大利的基安蒂。

  Therefore, we can say that the wines category is the most representative among GI products in the EU. It is the case of wines which quality is directly linked to their geographical origin, such as Champagne from France, Rioja from Spain or Chianti from Italy.

  同样,在中国受保护的 96 个欧盟地理标志中,葡萄酒是迄今为止最具代表性的产品类别。 与中国签订的协议中,欧盟的葡萄酒地理标志占比为56% ,其次是烈酒 (16%) 和奶酪 (12%)。

  Similarly, GI wines are by far the most represented product category in the first list of 96 EU GIs to be protected in China. 56% of the EU GIs in the agreement with China are wines, followed by spirits (16%) and cheese (12%).

  圆点直播:中国和欧盟的地理标志产品有何异同?是否有互相学习借鉴之处?

      Dot Live Broadcast:What are the similarities and differences between the GI products of China and the EU? Is there anything to learn from each other?

  彭达明:在欧盟和中国,各自地区的优质地理标志产品都展示丰富的美食和文化传统。

  Damien Plan:Both in the EU and China, GI products showcase quality and authentic products from two regions with a rich culinary and cultural tradition.

  通过中欧地理标志协定对地理标志产品名称的保护将给中欧的生产者和消费者带来好处。

      The protection of GI product names through the EU-China GI agreement will bring benefits to producers and to consumers in the EU and China.

  地理标志体系为企业带来了优势。它提供了一个高质量的标识,帮助生产者营销他们的产品。平均下来,地理标志产品的售价是类似非地理标志产品的两倍。地理标志认可和奖励那些努力生产高质量产品的农民。欧盟和中国都有深厚的农村传统,该协定将有助于继续保留传统的生产工艺。在此背景下,地理标志生产也有助于乡村发展和振兴。

  The GI system brings advantages for businesses. It provides a quality stamp that helps producers marketing their products. On average, the selling price of a GI product is twice of a similar non-GI product. The GI allows recognizing and rewarding farmers that work harder to produce high quality products. Both the EU and China have a deep rural heritage and this agreement will contribute to continue preserving traditional production processes. In this context, GI production also contributes to rural development and revitalization.

  从消费者的角度来看,地标体系保证了地理标志产品的质量、真实性和原产地。中国消费者将获得来自欧盟的原产地产品,欧洲消费者也将能够购买来自中国的地理标志产品。

  From the consumers’ point of view, the GI system guarantees the quality, the authenticity, and the origin of GI products.  As Chinese consumers will have access to products of trusted origin from the European Union, also European consumers will be able to buy Chinese products with a geographical indication.

  鉴于欧盟和中国在农业和烹饪传统上的差异,中欧地理标志协定中包含的主要产品类别也可能不同。虽然该协定涵盖的欧盟地理标志最大类别的产品是葡萄酒(56%),但中国地理标志第一大类别的产品是水果或蔬菜。

  Given the differences between EU and China’s agriculture and culinary traditions, major categories of products included in the EU-China GI agreement may also differ. While the largest category of EU GIs covered by the agreement are wines (56%), the number one category of Chinese GIs are fruits or vegetables GIs.

  二、关于地标产品与贸易

  II.geographical indication products and trade

  圆点直播:自今年3月1日起,中欧地理标志协定生效,实施3个月以来,对中国和欧盟贸易发展和市场规范等方面有什么影响?

  Dot Live Broadcast:Since 1 March 2021, the China-EU GI Agreement has enter into force. What has been the impact on the trade development and market regulation of China and EU since its implementation for 3 months?

  彭达明:今年3 月在北京举行的庆祝中欧地理标志双边协定生效的活动中,欧盟的郁白大使表示:“该协定为中国市场上的欧洲地理标志名称和欧洲市场上的中国地理标志名称提供了高度保护。进一步推进全球对地理标志的认可,使我们能够保留、保护生产这些高质量产品的传统方式、方法,保护我们的食品文化遗产,并为农村经济做出贡献,为欧洲和中国消费者以及社会带来好处。”

  Damien Plan:In a conference event held in Beijing last March to celebrate the entry into force of the EU-China bilateral agreement on geographical indications, Ambassador Chapuis said that “This agreement provides high protection for European GI names on the Chinese market and for Chinese GI names on the European market. It is another step in the global recognition of geographical indications, allowing us to preserve the traditional way of producing these high-quality products, conserving our food heritage, and contributing to rural economies, bringing benefits to both European and Chinese consumers as well as society at large.”

  三个月的实施时间对于评估中欧地理标志协定对贸易的影响来说是很短暂的。尽管如此,欧盟和中国之间的这一具有里程碑意义的协定有望将为双方带来互惠的贸易利益和对高质量产品的需求。

  Three months of implementation is a short time to assess the impact of the China-EU GI agreement on trade. Nevertheless, this landmark agreement between EU and China is expected to result in reciprocal trade benefits and demand for high quality products on both sides.

  欧盟与中国的农产品贸易快速发展。 2020 年是创纪录的一年,欧盟对中国的农产品出口接近 180 亿欧元。预计中欧地理标志协定将进一步促进中欧农产品贸易发展。根据该协定,地理标志产品名称下的法律保护和更高的质量认可将为双方的农产品出口商带来贸易利益。

      Agri-food trade between the EU and China has developed positively. 2020 was a record year with EU agri-food exports to China nearly reaching € 18 billion. The EU-China GI agreement is expected to further contribute to EU-China relations in respect to agri-food trade. Under this agreement, legal protection of GI product names and greater recognition of quality will bring trade benefits to agri-food exporters from both sides.

  圆点直播:地理标志产品在国际贸易中会得到哪些保护?

  Dot Live Broadcast:What protection will geographical indication products receive in international trade?

  彭达明:注册为地理标志的产品名称受到法律保护,不得仿冒和滥用。这适用于欧盟内部市场以及已签署特定保护协定的非欧盟国家,例如 2021 年 3 月 1 日生效的中欧地理标志协定。

  更具体地说,中欧地理标志双边协定高度保护地标名称,防止任何非原产地或不符合地理标志规范的类似产品冒用。

      Damien Plan:Names of products registered as geographical indications are legally protected against imitation and misuse. This applies to the market inside the EU as well as in non-EU countries where a specific protection agreement has been signed, which is the case of the EU-China agreement on GIs, which entered into force on 1 March 2021.

  More specifically, the EU-China bilateral agreement on geographical indications foresees a high level of protection against any use on similar products that do not originate in the place indicated by the GI or that are not compliant with GI specifications.

  圆点直播:如何加快双边地理标志产品的贸易发展?

  Dot Live Broadcast:How to accelerate the trade development of bilateral GI products?

  彭达明:欧盟地理标志的市场总额,包括欧盟内部的销售和欧盟对欧盟以外国家的出口,价值约 750 亿欧元,占欧盟食品和饮料年销售额的 7%。 地理标志产品出口约 170 亿欧元,占欧盟食品和饮料出口总额的 15% 以上。

      Damien Plan:The total market for EU geographical indications, including domestic sales inside the EU and EU exports to countries outside the EU, is worth around €75 billion and accounts for 7% of EU food and drink annual sales value. GI exports of about €17 billion account for over 15% of total EU food and drink exports.

  欧洲的食品和饮料在中国市场具有较高的增长潜力。 2020 年,中国是欧盟农产品出口的第三大目的地,达到创纪录的 177 亿欧元。中国也是欧盟地理标志产品出口的第三大目的地,占欧盟地理标志出口总值的9%,包括葡萄酒、农产品和烈酒。 中国消费者欣赏欧洲农产品的安全性、高质量和真实性。

  European food and drinks have a high-growth potential in the Chinese market. In 2020, China was the third destination for EU agri-food products exports, reaching a record value of €17.7 billion. China is also the third destination of EU exports of GI products, accounting for 9% EU GI exports’ total value, including wines, agri-food products and spirit drinks. Chinese consumers appreciate European agri-food’s safety, quality and authenticity.

  提高公众对地理标志概念的认识有助于发展双边地理标志产品贸易。重要的是,公众要了解地理标志代表什么,对生产者和消费者都有什么好处。此外,提高中欧协议的知名度及其相互贸易利益也将十分重要。

  Raising public awareness of the concept of geographical indication can contribute to the development of bilateral trade of GI products. It is important that the public understands what GI stands for and what the benefits are for both producers and consumers. It will also be important to promote visibility of the EU-China agreement and its mutual trade benefits.

  圆点直播:在中欧地理标志协定生效后,有哪些中国地理标志产品进入了欧盟市场,反响如何?如果没有,怎么促进他们快速贸易互通?

  Dot Live Broadcast:What Chinese GI products have entered the EU market after the entry into force of the China-EU GI Agreement and how is the European consumer react? If not, how to promote their presence in the EU market?

  彭达明:就中国地理标志在欧盟市场的推广而言,需要强调的是,中欧双边地理标志协定规定“一旦地理标志受到本协定的保护,该地理标志所涵盖的产品可使用另一方在领土内的官方专用地理标志”。 有了地理标志的专用标志,欧盟和中国两地的市场形象和声誉同时也会受益。

      Damien Plan:In terms of promotion of Chinese GIs in the EU market, it is important to highlight that the EU-China bilateral agreement on geographical indications foresees that“once a GI is protected under this Agreement, the products covered by that GI may bear the official symbols of the GI of the other Party in the territory of that Party”. With a GI stamp, products from the EU and China will benefit in terms of image and reputation in one another’s markets.

  三、地标产品与产业发展、促进当地经济增长

  III.Geographical Indication Products and Industrial Development, Promoting Local Economic Growth

  圆点直播:您觉得如何利用地理标志产品带动地方增收?地理标志产业和文化产业、旅游产业有什么关联吗?有没有成功案例供借鉴?

  Dot Live Broadcast:Do you think GI products could be used to drive local income growth? Are there any successful cases for reference。Is there any connection between GI industry and cultural and tourism industry? Are there any successful cases?

  彭达明:地理标志具有促进当地经济增长的潜力。

  一方面,生产商将能够以质量为基础推广产品,并吸引愿意为地理标志产品支付更高价格的客户。在欧盟,一些经济研究证实,与类似的非地理标志产品相比,地理标志产品的平均售价是非地理标志产品的两倍。

      Damien Plan:Geographical indications have the potential to contribute to growth of local economies.

  On one hand, producers will be able to promote products based on quality and to respond to customers willing to pay higher prices for a GI product. In the EU, some economic studies have confirmed that GI products sell, on average, at a double price compared to similar non-GI products.

  另一方面,除了农民或生产者的收入增加外,地理标志生产对当地收入增长还有其他积极的附属作用。由于地理标志的定义是在地理标志地理区域内进行生产,地理标志产品的生产会有助于维持当地的就业和经济活动,并有助于该特定地区的乡村振兴。

  On the other hand, in addition to higher revenues for farmers or producers, there are other positive side effects of GI production on local income growth. Since GI production by definition remains located in the GI geographical area, production of GI products will contribute to maintain local jobs and economic activities and can contribute to rural revitalisation in that specific region.

  特定地区的地理标志生产鼓励保护当地的技术工艺、传统技术、乡村景观和农业旅游。

      GI production in a specific region encourages the preservation of local know-how, traditional techniques, rural landscapes and agro-tourism.

  在欧洲,葡萄酒行业可以被视为地理标志的成功案例。地理标志产品的售价一般是非地理标志产品的两倍。就占欧盟所有葡萄酒 70% 的地理标志葡萄酒而言,与非地理标志葡萄酒的价格差异更为显著。根据去年为欧盟委员会所做的一项研究,地理标志葡萄酒与非地理标志葡萄酒的价值溢价率为 2.85。

  In Europe, the wine sector can be seen as a GI success story. GI products in general are sold at a price twice as much as non-GI products’. In the case of GI wines, which account for 70% of all EU wines, the price difference to non-GI wines is even more significant. According to a study produced for the European Commission last year, the value premium rate stands at 2.85 for GI wines versus non-GI wines.

  此外,农业旅游,尤其是葡萄酒旅游,在优质地标葡萄酒产区发展强劲,为当地收入带来了额外的经济增长。

  Furthermore, agro-tourism, especially wine tourism, has developed strongly in regions producing GI quality wines, providing an additional source of local income growth.

  四、下一步工作思路

  IV.Next Steps

  圆点直播:下一步有什么样的落地措施?对于中欧地理标志未来的交流与合作,您有什么期许?

  Dot Live Broadcast:What are the next steps for implementation? What are your expectations for the future exchange and cooperation between China and Europe on geographical indications?

  彭达明:该协定于 2021 年 3 月 1 日生效以来,我们的重点是执行该协定。一旦欧盟和中国地理标志协定得到妥善执行,并切实提供高水平的保护以防止仿冒和盗用,中欧地理标志协定的互利将成为现实。

  Damien Plan:Since the agreement entered into force on 1 March 2021, our focus is its implementation. The mutual benefits of the EU-China GI agreement will materialise once the agreement is properly implemented and a high level of protection against imitation and usurpation is actually provided to EU and Chinese GIs.

  更具体地说,中欧地理标志协定预计在短期内,中欧将成立一个联合委员会,监督协定执行和实施,并加强在地理标志方面合作与对话。

      More specifically the EU-China GI agreement foresees that in the short term the EU and China will set up a Joint Committee between EU and China to monitor implementation of the agreement and to intensify cooperation and dialogue on geographical indications.

  因此,中国和欧盟应共同努力,确保协定在彼此市场上得到切实执行和实施,并推广其标志性地理标志名称。

  China and the EU should therefore work together to ensure solid implementation and enforcement of the agreement on each other’s market, and promotion of their iconic GI names.

  双方即将开展的合作活动包括“信息交流”、“执法经验交流”、“执法保护以及商标与地理标志之间关系的能力建设”、“提高公众意识、传播地理标志信息”。

  Examples of cooperation activities that will take place include  “exchanging information”, “exchanging experiences of enforcement”, “capacity building including with regard to enforcement of protection, and to the relation between trademarks and geographical indications”, “promotion of public awareness and dissemination of information on geographical indications”.

  此外,在中期,即在生效后的四年内(到 2025 年 3 月),该协定将扩大到另外 350 个地理标志名称(双方各 175 个地理标志名称)。 这些名称必须遵循与协定已涵盖的第一个清单相同的审批程序。

  Additionally, in the mid-term, within four years after entry into force (by March 2025), the agreement will expand to cover an additional 350 GI names (175 GI names from each side). These names will have to follow the same approval procedure as the first list of names already covered by the agreement.

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